The body a bullsnake is beige or yellow in color with black or brown blotches. These blotches become rings when they reach the tail. The snake’s underside is pale yellow.
Bullsnakes range from 3 to 6 feet (0.9-1.8m) in length.
In the wild, bullsnakes primarily eat large mice, gophers, and other small mammals. Birds, eggs, frogs, and lizards make up a smaller part of the diet. At Cosley Zoo, the bullsnake eats mice and chicken. It is not fed live prey.
Bullsnakes are oviparous (egg-layers). Mating occurs in March and April once the snakes emerge from their winter dormancy. During June and July, a clutch of 5-19 leathery eggs is laid in loose soil. Females abandon the nests soon after they lay the eggs, and multiple females may lay their eggs at the same site. The hatchlings emerge in early autumn after an incubation period of approximately 50 to 80 days.
Bullsnakes favor open prairies and grassy meadows bordered by woodlands. They prefer sandy soil that they can burrow into easily. They are also able to climb and can sometimes be found in trees. In the winter, bullsnakes congregate with other snakes in burrows or rock crevices and go into a state of winter dormancy until early spring.
Bullsnakes are beneficial to humans because they eat large quantities of mice, gophers, and other small mammals. They frequently control populations of prairie dog towns and other burrowing animal systems.